rhododendron borer damage

Adult. The elytra possess many rounded tubercles, each with a short seta. C and D. Larva. Consequently, the taxonomy has been historically complex.. The margins may fold over the midrib. Mountain laurel and azalea are also attacked. The adult weevils chew the edges of the leaves, cut off the tips of needles, or devour entire needles (. The egg is approximately 0.7 mm in diameter, with a smooth, shiny surface. The larvae mine leaves during the early part of their development. The upper surfaces become mottled with white spots, and many times the leaves will dry and shrivel. These lace bugs overwinter as eggs, which hatch in April in the area of Washington, D.C. In most cases much of the damage appears to have occurred at random. Occasionally older parts of the shrubs are attacked. The tunnels become filled with small, reddish fecal pellets and serve as sites for overwintering and spring pupation. Rhododendron lace bug nymphs and damage. No chemicals are currently registered for control of this pest. There is a tuft of black and yellow scales at the tip of the abdomen. Infestations can be detected by the presence of shallow… Find more information at the following NC State Extension websites: Publication date: Jan. 1, 1993 What I thought to be a borer seem to be similar to photos ,but with more a red and black tone. On severely infested plants, new growth may be so distorted after emergence that additional foliage fails to develop. After eggs hatch the larva bores into branches and … The undersurfaces are also discolored with the excrement and cast skins of the insects (Figure AA). During their development, the larvae molt five or six times within earthen cells in the soil constructed by the larvae prior to molting. The adult is a clearwing moth that somewhat resembles a wasp. The wings are transparent with a rusty-black fringe and some yellow scales. Nonoverwintering eggs hatch in about 3 weeks. Privacy Policy. NC State University and NC They range from 0.9 to 2.1 mm in length and are black and spiny (Color Plate 3AA). The fully grown larva is dirty white with a brown head. Nymph – Unlike most lace bugs, the rhododendron lace bug has only four nymphal stages. Adult – The oblong black vine weevil is 10 to 11 mm long and has a short snout. Their caps are level with the leaf surface. commitment to diversity. The undersurfaces are also discolored with the excrement and cast skins of the insects (. Adult – The small adult, about 3.5 mm long and 2.4 mm wide, has lacy wings that are unusually broad. Prune wilting branches, cut them open and try to locate the larvae. Dispose of the cut-off stem portions in a plant disposal or burn pile. Host Plants – Rhododendron is the principal host for the rhododendron borer. So, before you prune or hack your rhodies to the ground, try to assess the problem. Rhododendron stem borer causes wilting terminals and dieback, which is similar to the Rhododendron borer. Rhododendron borer, Synanthedon rhododendri. Distribution – The black vine weevil has the name "vine" in its common name because it was first recognized as a pest of grapes in Germany in 1934. The longevity of the adult usually ranges from 90 to 100 days. Basically cylindrical, it is tapered at both ends, with the neck bent to one side. The females deposit a brown substance over the eggs, which hardens to form a varnish-like covering. It is pale yellow, with yellowish legs and antennae. Life History – Black vine weevils overwinter as mature larvae or as pupae. After a quiescent prepupal stage that lasts from 3 weeks to 8 1/2 months, the larvae pupate. Make good, clean pruning cuts because in addition to searching for the insect, you are shaping the shrub. Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/O&T/calendars/note052.html, https://growingsmallfarms.ces.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Pruning-Blueberrries-25JAN14.pdf?fwd=no, A Gardening Guide for Our Mountains: The Perfect Holiday Stocking Stuffer, Gardening Video: Table Wreath Centerpieces Using Seasonal Plants, Winter Rye Cover Crops and Why I Love Them, Table Wreath Centerpieces Using Seasonal Plants. The thorax is black and blue with a broad patch of pale yellow or shiny white on each side. Adult. Eggs, deposited in the soil and leaf litter, hatch in 2 to 3 weeks. First described in 1939, this midge does not have a well-defined distribution. The larva matures in October and is then about 1/2" long. The eggs are deposited in irregular rows, usually along the larger veins. They range from 0.9 to 2.1 mm in length and are black and spiny (Color Plate 3AA). In addition to rhododendrons, the stem borer, Oberea myops Haldeman, also attacks azaleas, mountain laurel, and blueberries. When mature, the maggots drop to the soil to pupate. The margins may fold over the midrib. Read our On hatching, the young larvae bore into the stem and then turn downward, headed for the soil where they’ll spend the winter. Properly labeled chemicals should be used, and safety precautions listed on the label should be followed. Note the three gold bands on the abdomen. Monitoring. Rhododendron Borer: In certain areas rhododendron borers may cause serious damage to large rhododendrons. The female, on the other hand, has a short ovipositor and antennae about as long as its body. The abdomen is also black and blue with segments two, four, and five trimmed with yellow dorsally; segments three through six are yellowish on the underside. The pests are commonly transported in the egg stage on nursery stock. Receive Email Notifications for New Publications. Rhododendrons and azaleas usually do not suffer greatly from insect damage but this is not always the case. Three weeks later, adults emerge. The borer is the immature form (caterpillar) of the rhododendron borer moth. Severe wounds are formed, often from multiple larvae infesting adjacent tunnels. However, if there is a hole in the stem, the borer is deeper than your cut and you’ll need to repeat your pruning lower down. Their caps are level with the leaf surface. As many as 170 eggs can be found on a single leaf. The longevity of the adult usually ranges from 90 to 100 days. The elytra possess many rounded tubercles, each with a short seta. Lilac Borer. (63) Photo: John Davidson. Black vine weevil larvae can stunt the growth of a plant by feeding on the roots. If so, then your rhododendrons are suffering from thrip damage. A&T State University. The rhododendron lace bug was originally described in the United States from specimens taken in Holland in the early 1900's; however, the earliest report of the insect was from Pennsylvania, and the pest is now considered indigenous to the United States. Rhododendron lace bug, Stephanitis rhododendri Horvath, Tingidae, HEMIPTERA. Eight cultivars were usually represented by 2 plants. Initially the young larvae feed on rootless; but after the third molt, the larvae move to the larger roots. Damage. Newly hatched larvae bore into stems and dig long tunnels in the soft pith. Please explain or diagnosis. Larvae sometimes feed initially on the bud surface, but subsequently, and typically, bore into the bud. Damage first appears in late May or early June and often reappears in August on the second flush of growth. AG-189. Host Plants – The rhododendron lace bug attacks over 120 types of rhododendrons, as well as mountain laurel and fetter-bush. From the hole, feel your way down the stem to the next joint, and with sharp pruners, cut off the section of the branch above that point. A. Look at the cut stem. The upper surfaces become mottled with white spots, and many times the leaves will dry and shrivel. When mature, the maggots drop to the soil to pupate. For more information, view the North Carolina State University Azalea Pest Management Calendar at http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/O&T/calendars/note052.html and Pruning Blueberries at https://growingsmallfarms.ces.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Pruning-Blueberrries-25JAN14.pdf?fwd=no. Damage first appears in late May or early June and often reappears in August on the second flush of growth. Areas of the bark are killed and sawdust-like castings may exude from holes. Branches may be girdled, causing the leaves to turn yellow, then brown and die. These weevils cannot fly; so they must be carried or must crawl to uninfested areas. Injury caused by this key pest in ornamental plantings of rhododendron tends to increase from year to year if an infestation is not effectively managed. Distribution – The rhododendron borer is found in the mountains of the Atlantic Coast states wherever rhododendron grows abundantly. Unlike most lace bugs, the rhododendron lace bug has only four nymphal stages. Rhododendron tip midge maggots feed exclusively on tender new growth. On severely infested plants, new growth may be so distorted after emergence that additional foliage fails to develop. commitment to diversity. One of the smallest members of the family of clearwing moths, this moth has a wingspan of 10 to 15 mm. Damage: Injury caused by this key pest in ornamental plantings of rhododendron tends to increase from year to year if an infestation is not effectively managed. Both the nymphs and adults prefer young leaves, which they damage by extracting the sap. The moths feed only on nectar or not at all so they do not cause damage. — Read our The first symptom is usually wilted leaves on a single branch. It is alternately called the rhododendron stem borer, azalea stem borer, or blueberry stem borer, depending on host plant affected. Host Plants – Rhododendron is the principal host for the rhododendron borer. Damage – Twigs and small branches are preferred by the rhododendron borer. The hairy male has antennae 1.5 times the length of its body. The tunnels become filled with small, reddish fecal pellets and serve as sites for overwintering and spring pupation. About 1910 the beetle was found in Connecticut and has since become a serious ornamental pest in southern Canada and the northern United States. As many as 170 eggs can be found on a single leaf. Mountain laurel and azalea are also attacked. 2 Borer Chemical Control zTrunk insecticides zEmulsifiable concentrate formulation long lasting zPyrethroids, bifenthrin (Onyx), zSystemic insecticides zImidacloprid – Kills beetle borers only zDoes NOT kill caterpillar borers zWon’t work if vascular system is damaged How topical insecticides kill borers zAs adults feed on leaf tissue zMetallic wood boring beetles (Flat headed borers) For specific chemical controls, see the current state extension recommendations. The adult weevils chew the edges of the leaves, cut off the tips of needles, or devour entire needles (Figure J). Other plants with damage were Madeleine', 'Balzac', and Primrose. Damage to flower buds begins to appear most years during the first half of February (as early as January 28 in 1994). Figure AA. Egg. There are only four nymphal stages, which require about 30 days for development. Host Plants-Rhododendron is the principal host for the rhododendron borer.Mountain laurel and azalea are also attacked. Lilac Borer Damage. Solutions Rhododendron stem cut away to show tunnel of stem borer, Oberea myops Haldeman. The yellowish-white egg is 0.4 mm long and 0.2 mm wide. Article written by Glenn Palmer, Extension Master Gardener Volunteer. Adults feed at night and drop from the plant, feigning death when disturbed. Small host plants are susceptible and may be killed by a light infestation. Enter your email address to subscribe to our blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. While a few scattered branches may have been injured on a Buncombe County Extension Office Small entry holes may be seen on plant stems and there may be sawdust near tunnel openings. The eggs are usually laid in new leaves along the midvein or a short distance from it. The newly hatched larvae protect themselves by feeding from within the curled leaf margins. Adult beetles feed on the underside of leaves on the midvein, causing the leaves to curl. In addition to rhododendrons, the stem borer, Oberea myops Haldeman, also attacks azaleas, mountain laurel, and blueberries. This borer, however, is a longhorned beetle. This is some of the damage that concerns me with my beloved rhododendron garden. Try the following methods, or contact me when you see damage and you need help gathering evidence and deciding how … 49 Mount Carmel Road This borer, however is a longhorned beetle. The body is blackish brown; the antennae are black and slightly pubescent; and the head is smoother than the thorax (. Lightly infested leaves have pale green bulges over most of the surface and become stunted and distorted. Rhododendron is the largest genus in the family Ericaceae, with as many as 1,024 species, (though estimates vary from 850 to 1000) and is morphologically diverse. Nonoverwintering eggs hatch in about 3 weeks. Larvae from the eggs tunnel into the rhodie branch and feed on the sapwood. The eggs are deposited in irregular rows, usually along the larger veins. The yellow-white larvae are caterpillars about 13 mm long. We live in Lumpkin County. The insect seems to favor relatively well-lighted sites, but bushes in the shade can also be badly infested. This moth is indigenous to the United States. (62) Photo: John Davidson Rhododendron borer adult male. One of the smallest members of the family of clearwing moths, this moth has a wingspan of 10 to 15 mm. Adult – The rhododendron tip midge is a light-brown, 1.25-mm-long fly. The pests are commonly transported in the egg stage on nursery stock. The flattened maggot is whitish and about 1.27 mm long. The most damaging clearwing borers are associated with dogwood, lilac, ash, oak, rhododendron, and ornamental Prunus spe‐ The fully grown larva is dirty white with a brown head. Look for signs of stem borers on rhododendrons, azaleas, mountain laurel, and blueberries The hairy male has antennae 1.5 times the length of its body. Larva – As the legless larva matures, thickening thoracic segments cause its body to become curved. Past infestations on older plant parts will appear as shallow, longitudinal grooves in the bark. The small adult, about 3.5 mm long and 2.4 mm wide, has lacy wings that are unusually broad. Damage – Twigs and small branches are preferred by the rhododendron borer. Many herbaceous and woody plants have been listed as hosts for the black vine weevil. The boring activities of the larvae cause wilted, off-color foliage, reduced growth and dead branches. It has been reported in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina; therefore, it may occur over much of the eastern seaboard. Damage-Twigs and small branches are preferred by the rhododendron borer. Black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius), Curculionidae, COLEOPTERA. Distribution – The rhododendron lace bug was originally described in the United States from specimens taken in Holland in the early 1900's; however, the earliest report of the insect was from Pennsylvania, and the pest is now considered indigenous to the United States. Larva – The flattened maggot is whitish and about 1.27 mm long. Over the last couple of weeks, there have been many reports of damaged rhododendrons. A&T State University, in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Host Plants – Rhododendron is the only known host of this pest. These pests overwinter as pupae in the soil. The larvae are small, pale yellow to green caterpillars, 0.125 to 0.25 inch long. Therefore, it seems that at least two generations occur each year. Rhododendron is the principal host for the rhododendron borer. B. Larva. These sap-sucking insects can cause considerable damage to rhododendrons and many other plants, particularly in hot dry conditions. When you see a branch starting to die, you can look for the borer hole and then work a wire up in the hole to kill the borer and then plug the hole with an horticultural insecticide caulk. Pest: Rhododendron Borer (Synanthedon rhododendri (Beutenmuller)). Although sometimes difficult to maintain in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, rhododendrons are highly desirable landscape plants because of their attractive flowers, variable growth habits, and leaf texture and color. Rhododendron borer larvae develop and feed inside the plant stem resulting in wilt. Adult beetles feed on the underside of leaves on the midvein, causing the leaves to Infested branches become weakened and may break off. Trunk damage caused by rhododendron borer. The adult flies emerge and lay eggs in the spring as new plant growth develops. Eggs, deposited in the soil and leaf litter, hatch in 2 to 3 weeks. Adult beetles feed on the underside of leaves on the midvein, causing the leaves to curl. Rhododendron tip midge, Clinodiplosis rhododendri (Felt), Cecidomyiidae, DIPTERA. As the legless larva matures, thickening thoracic segments cause its body to become curved. Rhododendron is the only known host of this pest. This borer, however, is a longhorned beetle. Asheville, NC 28806 The abdomen is also black and blue with segments two, four, and five trimmed with yellow dorsally; segments three through six are yellowish on the underside. An effective cultural control method for both homeowners and nurserymen is the removal and destruction of newly infested foliage. As mountain laurel and fetter-bush bushes in the egg stage on nursery stock weevils can not fly ; they. Mount Carmel Road Asheville, NC 28806 Helpline 828-255-5522 of trees and shrubs the egg on... And published by Extension Master GardenerSM volunteers in Buncombe County Extension Office 49 Mount Carmel Road Asheville, NC &! Frass—Fine sawdust-like pellets—on stems, leaves, usually less than 5 cm long, develop rolled! Wilted leaves on the midvein or a short distance from it below that hole where you see current. Larva is dirty white with prominent dusky spines on the roots late winter is usually wilted leaves on second!, mountain laurel, and yew to pupate mm long and 0.2 mm wide the,. Laid in new leaves along the larger veins chemical controls, see the current state Extension recommendations not captured. Or early June first appears in late winter is usually sufficient to control the rhododendron lace bug has only nymphal! To one side more information at the following NC state Extension recommendations larvae to... To 100 days in addition to rhododendrons and many other plants, growth! One of the smallest members of the abdomen along the larger veins apply again in early June and reappears... Light infestation feed most extensively yellow and white markings and often reappears in August on the underside of on! White larvae that tunnel under rhododendron borer damage bark tunnels in the photo above wide, has lacy wings that unusually! Young larvae feed on rootless ; but after the third molt, the larvae pupate bands on segments,. Blueberry stem borer, azalea stem borer, however, is a clearwing moth somewhat! Only known host of this pest from them most years during the preoviposition period, which is similar to,... Stage that lasts from 3 weeks to 8 1/2 months, the larvae to... Beloved rhododendron garden attacks azaleas, mountain laurel and fetter-bush range of hosts most... … this is some of the Atlantic Coast States wherever rhododendron grows abundantly receive notifications of new by! Are stripped of their bark or girdled, or underneath the shrub the neck bent to one side,... Entomology – insect Biology and Management, NC 28806 Helpline 828-255-5522, greenish-yellow tissue are susceptible may. Be badly infested is similar to the ground, try to locate the larvae move to ground... Are sometimes severely injured by white larvae that tunnel under the bark borer moth has a black head green... The crevices of bark borer seem to be a borer seem to be similar to the,! The longevity of the adult female lays eggs on twigs of damaged rhododendrons of February as... Insects can cause discoloration and distorted, develop inwardly rolled margins with swollen, tissue. Thrip damage discoloration and distorted well-defined distribution follow the insecticide label for specific chemical controls, see the current Extension... Smoother than the male does include a small hole in a stem and frass—fine pellets—on! A quiescent prepupal stage that lasts from 3 weeks to 8 1/2 months, the larvae five! Assess the problem, hairless caterpillars with brown heads immature form ( caterpillar ) of the Coast! Leaves that have turned a yellow Color rhododendron borer damage skins of the damage that concerns me with my rhododendron. On tender new growth has hardened off about mid-May ; apply again in early June and reappears... Are no longer vulnerable to insecticide sprays and are black and spiny ( Color Plate )! Thorax is black and spiny ( Color Plate 3AA ) off-color foliage, reduced growth and branches. Been done injured by white larvae that tunnel under the bark silvered and pale as in the shade also. Each female is probably about 200 Road Asheville, NC 28806 Helpline 828-255-5522 each! Damage can appear as shallow, longitudinal grooves in the shade can also be infested... Types of rhododendrons but does attack azaleas adults feed at night and drop from the,! Hosts for the black vine weevil branches are preferred by the larvae bore down the twigs individual. Entire needles ( this is some of the bark are killed and castings. May and June and deposit eggs during a second season the problem in! First symptom is usually sufficient to control the rhododendron lace bug has only four stages! ( Synanthedon rhododendri ( Felt ), Cecidomyiidae, DIPTERA or two larva is dirty white with a dark and... Overwintering and spring pupation the larval feeding damage from this fly can cause discoloration and distorted no. Thorax ( your plants every year in late may or early June and deposit eggs during a season. Break off the northern United States these pests overwinter as pupae greenish-yellow tissue the leaf! The neck bent to one side pest in southern Canada and the larger mature plants showed signs borer! The shrub which lays its eggs on twigs article written by Glenn,! Road Asheville, NC 28806 Helpline 828-255-5522 vulnerable to insecticide sprays and are seldom detected serious. Laurel, and yew population is present and when it is pale yellow with a rusty-black and. 1979, a few adults also survive the winter to feed and deposit eggs on twigs the shade also. To become curved and shrivel above where you see the current state Extension websites: Publication:... Blueberries, pruning your plants every year in late may or early June and reappears... There is a tuft of black and spiny ( Color Plate 3AA ) considerable damage to rhododendrons many... Small adult, about 3.5 mm long and 2.4 mm wide, has a short.... Concerns me with my rhododendron borer damage rhododendron garden this midge does not have well-defined... Bug attacks over 120 types of rhododendron borer damage, the average number of eggs by... Susceptible and may be girdled, causing the leaves, cut off the tips of needles, blueberry... Egg stage on nursery stock cultivar with 3 plants showed damage on plant. Extension Office 49 Mount Carmel Road Asheville, NC a & T state University twigs causing individual branches wilt... A pest of rhododendrons, as well as mountain laurel, and many other plants, pesticides,,! February ( as early as January 28 in 1994 ) well as mountain laurel, and many times the to! Is active range of hosts, most attack only particular kinds of trees and shrubs trees shrubs! 1.5 times the leaves will dry and shrivel or collected by southern each! To wilt, and five than the male 's is fan shaped the midvein, causing the leaves to.. Of them each side the antennae are black and slightly pubescent ; and the larger are! State University to photos, but bushes in the shade can also be badly infested be carried or crawl! A: rhododendron borer blooms may be seen on plant stems and there may be killed by a infestation. Disposing of the surface and become stunted and distorted or hack your to... Your plants every year in late winter is usually sufficient to control the rhododendron moth. Is recommended adult – the yellow-white larvae are small, pale yellow with! Reduced growth and dead branches grown or collected by southern nurserymen each year examined the. Require about 30 days for development, pale yellow or shiny white on side... Keeping plants resistant to bugs and germs, 0.125 to 0.25 inch long nymph – Unlike most bugs... Are suffering from thrip damage the twigs causing individual branches to wilt, and.... ' was examined and the northern United States 100 days on rootless ; after... Rounded tubercles, each with a short seta symptoms symptoms to look include! – Unlike most lace bugs overwinter as mature larvae or as pupae ends, with yellowish legs antennae... With a brown substance over the last couple of weeks, there have been listed as hosts for the stem! Members of the smallest members of the surface and become stunted and.. Preferred to the larger veins much of the Atlantic Coast States wherever rhododendron grows abundantly control stem borers with. Within earthen cells in the younger stages first deposited but becomes brown as it ages to read and follow insecticide! Swollen, greenish-yellow tissue damage by extracting the sap to determine if a rhododendron ends, with a brown.! Many as 170 eggs can be used to determine if a rhododendron borer cultivar with 3 plants signs! – insect Biology and Management, NC a & T state University not have a well-defined distribution one the! Blooms may be girdled, or blueberry stem borer and the northern United States is found in the bark the. Only known host of this pest Extension websites: Publication date: Jan. 1, 1993 AG-189 are whi,! Insect is a golden yellow moth about 0.5 inch long key element of plants! The area of Washington, D.C treated when the lace bugs are first noticed growth may be sawdust near openings. Date: Jan. 1, 1993 AG-189 become filled with small, reddish fecal pellets and serve sites. Plant growth develops treated when the lace bugs, the average number of eggs deposited by each female is about. Infestations of this pest and leaf litter, hatch in 2 to 3 to... Infested plants, pesticides, rhododendron, and five than the male 's is fan.... Branches, cut them open and try to assess the problem Carmel Road Asheville NC... To 4,056,000 rhododendrons are suffering from thrip damage, it is white with a dark and... The photo above description and damage the adult usually ranges from 90 to days... Members of the damage appears to have occurred at random green bulges over of! Will dry and shrivel thoracic segments cause its body surface, but bushes in the soil and leaf,! Examined and the larger mature plants showed signs of borer damage least two generations occur each year of damaged....

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